What is Title IX?
Title IX of the Education Amendments of 1972 is a federal law that prohibits sex discrimination against students and employees at educational institutions. It states that
No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.
Title IX applies to high school athletics, prohibiting sex discrimination against female and male student athletes. Although significant improvements toward gender equity have been made since 1972, Title IX is still necessary and relevant today. High school girls face continued discrimination in scheduling, equipment, facilities, and overall participation opportunities. Currently, girls comprise 49 percent of the nation’s high school population, but they only account for 41 percent of high school athletes.
Who Does Title IX Protect?
Title IX applies to male and female staff and students in any educational institution that receives federal financial assistance. These institutions include local school districts, colleges and universities, for-profit schools, libraries, museums, vocational rehabilitation agencies, and education agencies.
What Does Title IX Require for Athletics?
Under Title IX, schools must:
A school can demonstrate that it is providing equal participation opportunities by showing that
A school can demonstrate that it treats female and male athletes equally in other respects in nine areas:
Additionally, every school must have a Title IX coordinator who responsible for managing a high school’s efforts to comply with its obligations under Title IX and the Title IX regulations, including coordinating the investigations of complaints received regarding Title IX and its regulations. Title IX regulations require that the names and contact information of each Title IX coordinator be made known to all students and employees of the high school.
Why Does Title IX Matter for High School Female Athletes?
AAUW believes that expansion of athletic opportunities for girls and women must continue at both the high school and college levels. Studies repeatedly show that
A recent report by the Women’s Sports Foundation entitled Her Life Depends on It found that:
Physical activity and sport [are] fundamental solutions for many of the serious health and social problems faced by girls. These include obesity, heart disease, substance abuse, teen pregnancy and depression—which accounts for much of the more than $1 trillion spent on healthcare for treating these issues.
A special section of the President’s Council on Physical Fitness and Sports also details the benefits of sports participation in school.
Civic Engagement Diaglogue Series
Here are some links to other websites that explain the basics of Title IX.
The Civil Rights Act of 1964
A federal law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of race, color, national origin, sex (including pregnancy), and religion in employment, education, and access to public facilities and public accommodations, such as restaurants and hotels. The employment provisions of the law are often referred to as "Title VII," based on their location in the U.S. Code.
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