APA (American Psychological Association) is the style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the social sciences.
Print Article Template
Author, A. A.. (Year Published). Article title. Journal title, Volume(Issue), Page(s).
Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55(6), 893-896.
Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.
Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A.
Today, it is more than likely that you will locate articles from a database or a website. When a DOI is available for an electronic article, provide the number at the end of the citation. In APA it is optional to include the name of the database or URL where the source was found, but always be sure to check your instructor's preferences for inclusion.
TAKE NOTE: When using a URL from a database, always use the permalink when one is provided to avoid expired session URLs.
Article from an Online Database or Website Template
Author, A. A.. (Year Published). Article title. Journal title, Volume(Issue), Page(s). doi: number
Author, A. A.. (Year Published). Article title. Journal title, Volume(Issue), Page(s). Retrieved from http://xxx
Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41, 1245-1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161
Halfwerk, W. , Jones, P. , Taylor, R. , Ryan, M. , & Page, R. (2014). Risky ripples allow bats and frogs to eavesdrop on a multisensory sexual display. Science, 343(6169), 413. Retrieved from http:// http://science.sciencemag.org/content/343/6169/413.full
Youtuber, brexit, and 'get your freak on' enter the Oxford English Dictionary. (2016, December 14).Time Magazine. Retrieved from http://time.com/4603064/oxford-dictionary-new-words.
Print Book Template
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.
Berry, W. (1981). The gift of good land. San Francisco, CA: NorthPoint.
Winston, B. L., Reinhart, M. L., Sacker, J. R., Gottlieb, W., Oscar, B., & Harris, D.P. (1980). Nepal in crisis: Growth and stagnation at the periphery. Delhi: Oxford UP.
Del Castillo, A. R. (Ed.). (1990). Between borders: Essays on Mexicana/Chicana history. Encino, CA: Floricanto.
When a book is accessed from a database, website, or other electronic source (even Amazon), the URL (or DOI when available) information is provided at the end of the citation. If the book is not directly available online or must be purchased, use "Available from," rather than "Retrieved from," and point readers to where they can find it.
Electronic Book Template
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Retrieved from http:xxxxx
Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. doi:xxxxx
Pustz, M. (1999). Comic book culture: Fanboys and true believers. Retrieved from http://0-search.ebscohost.com.iii.sonoma.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=25895&site=ehost-live&scope=site.
Schiraldi, G. R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:10.1036/0071393722
Speed, H. (2004). The practice and science of drawing. Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/14264
Stoker, B. (2000). Dracula [Kindle HDX version]. Retrieved from http://www.overdrive.com
List as much of this information as possible:
Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://xxxxx
All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue. (2010, October 13). Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39625809/ns/world_news-americas/
Lundman, S.. How to make vegetarian chili. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html.
National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved from http://www.drugabuse.gov
The following are examples for citing Videos, Blogs, Comments, Tweets, and Email in APA format style:
Ted Talks (Producer). (2016, April 6). Inside the mind of a master procrastinator: Tim Urban [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/arj7oStGLkU
Freakonomics. (2010, October 29). E-ZPass is a life-saver (literally) [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/10/29/e-zpass-is-a-life-saver-literally/
BarackObama. (2009, July 15). Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020: http://bit.ly/gcTX7 [Twitter post]. Retrieved from http://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366
In order to avoid plagiarism, all information which you gather from someone else’s research or knowledge needs to be both cited in a References page as well as through in-text citations (also called parenthetical citation). In-text citations are inserted directly into an essay using parentheses. In-text citations must be used to give credit to the original author for paraphrases, summaries, as well as direct quotes. Generally, they are placed at the end of a sentence.
The format for creating an in-text citation in APA Style is to include the last name of the author of the work, followed by the page number of the content used.
"In the Caribbean the successful planting of new varieties of crops owed much to the Amerindian, who carefully nurtured each newly introduced food source." (Mackie, 42)
Lead-in Reference with quote:
Christine Mackie notes that "in the Caribbean the successful planting of new varieties of crops owed much to the Amerindian, who carefully nurtured each newly introduced food source." (42)
The success of new varieties of crops planted in the Caribbean was due in part to the careful tending by the Amerindians. (Mackie, 42)
In the References:
The References for this essay will include a full bibliographic citation to the Mackie work:
Mackie, C.. (1992). Life and food in the Caribbean. New York: New Amsterdam Books
APA style requires a References page at the end of your research paper. All entries (except personal email) in the References page must correspond to the sources cited in your main text, in other words -- your in-text citations.