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Citing Sources

A guide to introduce how to cite your sources, avoid plagiarism, and use the right style guides to format your citations.

Citing Sources Using APA Style, 6th Edition

APA Overview

APA (American Psychological Association) is the style is most commonly used to write papers and cite sources within the social sciences.

Recommended Guides

Video Guides

APA Article Citation Examples

Print Articles

Print Article Template

Author, A. A.. (Year Published). Article title. Journal title, Volume(Issue), Page(s).

Journal Article Example

Harlow, H. F. (1983). Fundamentals for preparing psychology journal articles. Journal of Comparative and Physiological Psychology, 55(6), 893-896.

Magazine Article Example

Henry, W. A., III. (1990, April 9). Making the grade in today's schools. Time, 135, 28-31.

Newspaper Article Example

Schultz, S. (2005, December 28). Calls made to strengthen state energy policies. The Country Today, pp. 1A, 2A.

 

Electronic Articles

Today, it is more than likely that you will locate articles from a database or a website. When a DOI is available for an electronic article, provide the number at the end of the citation. In APA it is optional to include the name of the database or URL where the source was found, but always be sure to check your instructor's preferences for inclusion.

TAKE NOTE: When using a URL from a database, always use the permalink when one is provided to avoid expired session URLs.

Article from an Online Database or Website Template

Author, A. A.. (Year Published). Article title. Journal title, Volume(Issue), Page(s). doi: number

Author, A. A.. (Year Published). Article title. Journal title, Volume(Issue), Page(s). Retrieved from http://xxx

Article from an Online Database Examples

Brownlie, D. (2007). Toward effective poster presentations: An annotated bibliography. European Journal of Marketing, 41, 1245-1283. doi:10.1108/03090560710821161

Halfwerk, W. , Jones, P. , Taylor, R. , Ryan, M. , & Page, R. (2014). Risky ripples allow bats and frogs to eavesdrop on a multisensory sexual display. Science, 343(6169), 413. Retrieved from http:// http://science.sciencemag.org/content/343/6169/413.full

Article from a Website Example (no author)

Youtuber, brexit, and 'get your freak on' enter the Oxford English Dictionary. (2016, December 14).Time Magazine. Retrieved from http://time.com/4603064/oxford-dictionary-new-words. 

 

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APA Book Citations

Print Books

Print Book Template

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Location: Publisher.

Book (one author)

Berry, W. (1981). The gift of good land. San Francisco, CA: NorthPoint.

Book (more than one author)

Winston, B. L., Reinhart, M. L., Sacker, J. R., Gottlieb, W., Oscar, B., & Harris, D.P. (1980). Nepal in crisis: Growth and stagnation at the periphery. Delhi: Oxford UP.

Book (editor)

Del Castillo, A. R. (Ed.). (1990). Between borders: Essays on Mexicana/Chicana history. Encino, CA: Floricanto.

Electronic Books

When a book is accessed from a database, website, or other electronic source (even Amazon), the URL (or DOI when available) information is provided at the end of the citation. If the book is not directly available online or must be purchased, use "Available from," rather than "Retrieved from," and point readers to where they can find it. 

TAKE NOTE: 

  • The place of download (URL) or DOI is used in-place of publisher information.
  • When using a URL from a database, always use the permalink (permanent link) when one is provided to avoid expired session URLs.

Electronic Book Template

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. Retrieved from http:xxxxx

Author, A. A. (Year of publication). Title of work: Capital letter also for subtitle. doi:xxxxx

eBook from a Database

Pustz, M. (1999). Comic book culture: Fanboys and true believers. Retrieved from http://0-search.ebscohost.com.iii.sonoma.edu/login.aspx?direct=true&db=nlebk&AN=25895&site=ehost-live&scope=site. 

Schiraldi, G. R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Adobe Digital Editions version]. doi:10.1036/0071393722

eBook from a Website

Speed, H. (2004). The practice and science of drawing. Retrieved from http://www.gutenberg.org/etext/14264

eReaders

Stoker, B. (2000). Dracula [Kindle HDX version]. Retrieved from http://www.overdrive.com

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MLA Website Citations

 

Website Template

List as much of this information as possible:

Author, A. A., & Author, B. B. (Date of publication). Title of document. Retrieved from http://xxxxx

Website Examples

All 33 Chile miners freed in flawless rescue. (2010, October 13). Retrieved from http://www.msnbc.msn.com/id/39625809/ns/world_news-americas/

Lundman, S.. How to make vegetarian chili. Retrieved from: http://www.ehow.com/how_10727_make-vegetarian-chili.html. 

National Institute on Drug Abuse. Retrieved from http://www.drugabuse.gov

 

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Other Media Sources

The following are examples for citing Videos, Blogs, Comments, Tweets, and Email in APA format style:

Videos

Ted Talks (Producer). (2016, April 6). Inside the mind of a master procrastinator: Tim Urban [Video file]. Retrieved from https://youtu.be/arj7oStGLkU

Blogs

Freakonomics. (2010, October 29). E-ZPass is a life-saver (literally) [Blog post]. Retrieved from http://freakonomics.blogs.nytimes.com/2010/10/29/e-zpass-is-a-life-saver-literally/

E-mails
TAKE NOTE: E-mails are not included in the list of references, though you parenthetically cite them in your main text:
(E. Robbins, personal communication, January 4, 2001).
Tweets

BarackObama. (2009, July 15). Launched American Graduation Initiative to help additional 5 mill. Americans graduate college by 2020: http://bit.ly/gcTX7 [Twitter post]. Retrieved from http://twitter.com/BarackObama/status/2651151366

 

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In-text Citations

In order to avoid plagiarism, all information which you gather from someone else’s research or knowledge needs to be both cited in a References page as well as through in-text citations (also called parenthetical citation). In-text citations are inserted directly into an essay using parentheses. In-text citations must be used to give credit to the original author for paraphrases, summaries, as well as direct quotes. Generally, they are placed at the end of a sentence. 

In-text citations:  

  • allows your reader to know which source each idea/fact came from
  • gives you credibility as a writer
  • protects you from plagiarism
  • points your reader to the proper entry in your References.

 

Examples of In-text Citations

The format for creating an in-text citation in APA Style is to include the last name of the author of the work, followed by the page number of the content used.

Direct Quote:

"In the Caribbean the successful planting of new varieties of crops owed much to the Amerindian, who carefully nurtured each newly introduced food source." (Mackie, 42)

Lead-in Reference with quote:

Christine Mackie notes that "in the Caribbean the successful planting of new varieties of crops owed much to the Amerindian, who carefully nurtured each newly introduced food source." (42)

Paraphrase:

The success of new varieties of crops planted in the Caribbean was due in part to the careful tending by the Amerindians. (Mackie, 42)

In the References:

The References for this essay will include a full bibliographic citation to the Mackie work:

Mackie, C.. (1992). Life and food in the Caribbean. New York: New Amsterdam Books

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References

APA style requires a References page at the end of your research paper. All entries (except personal email) in the References page must correspond to the sources cited in your main text, in other words -- your in-text citations.

Basic Rules

  • Begin your References page on a separate page at the end of your research paper. 
  • Label the page References (do not italicize the words References or put them in quotation marks) and center the word References at the top of the page.
  • Double space all citations, but do not skip spaces between entries.
  • Indent the second and subsequent lines of citations by 0.5 inches to create a hanging indent.

 

APA References Examples

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