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Additional resources for APA style.

APA Abbreviations

The correct form of abbreviation must be used in reference lists:

  ed. edition
  Rev. ed. Revised edition
  2nd ed. second edition
  Ed. (Eds.) Editor (Editors)
  Trans.  Translators
  n.d. no date
  p. (pp.) Page (pages)
  Vol. Volume (as in Vol. 4)
  Vols. Volumes (as in 4 vols.)   
  Tech. Rep. Technical Report
  Suppl. supplement

 

Note: Abbreviations are used in some circumstances. For example, in a work with multiple editions, it is important to include this information after the title, like this: (4th ed.). As with all citation, your use of abbreviations is on a case-by-case basis. In a typical academic journal, you do not need to mention the "Vol." for Volume. However, when you have a multi-volume work, such as a print encyclopedia, you do need to clarify which Volume or Volumes you are using.

APA Examples

Examples of how to format sources for your reference list.

Book, One Author

Berry, W. (1981). The gift of good land. San Francisco: NorthPoint.

Book, Two or More Authors

Winston, B. L., Reinhart, M. L., Sacker, J. R., Gottlieb, W., Oscar, B., & Harris, D.P. (1980). Nepal in crisis: Growth and

stagnation at the periphery. Delhi: Oxford University Press.

Book, with Editor instead of Author

Del Castillo, A. R. (Ed.). (1990). Between borders: Essays on Mexicana/Chicana history. Encino: Floricanto.

Scholarly Article, in print, from Journal with Continuous Pagination

Mivedev, Z. (1990). The environmental destruction of the Soviet Union. The Ecologist, 20, 24-29.

Scholarly Article, in print, from Journal with Separate Pagination

Ayoade, J. (1989). The culture debate in Africa. The Black Scholar, 20(2-3), 2-7.

Scholarly Article, online (with DOI*)

Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E.D., & White, L. A. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in

supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(3), 443-449. DOI:10.1037/0021-9010.78.3.443

Scholarly Article, online (without DOI)

Borman, W. C., Hanson, M. A., Oppler, S. H., Pulakos, E.D., & White, L. A. (1993). Role of early supervisory experience in

supervisor performance. Journal of Applied Psychology, 78(3), 443-449. Retrieved from http://www.apa.org

Newspaper Article, online

Nikesh, A. (2008, May 18). Online revolution: Adapt or die. Sunday Times. Retrieved from http://www.timesonline.co.uk

E-book (with DOI)

Schiraldi, G. R. (2001). The post-traumatic stress disorder sourcebook: A guide to healing, recovery, and growth [Adobe

Digital Editions version]. DOI:10.1036/0071393722

Encyclopedia Article, online

Graham, G. (2005). Behaviorism. In E.N. Zalta (Ed.), The Stanford encyclopedia of philosophy (Fall 2007 ed.).

Retrieved from http://plato.stanford.edu/entries/behaviorism/

Web Page

Nunley, K. (2001). The caffeine craze of youth. Retrieved from http://help4teachers.com/caffeine.htm

Web Page, No Author

Women and the Economy: A Project of UNPAC.(2006). Globalization and clothes. Retrieved from:

http://unpac.ca/economy/g_clothes.html

Online Video/Movie

Norton, R. (2006, November 4). How to train a cat to operate a light switch [Video file]. Retrieved from

http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Vja83KLQXZs

 

APA In-text Citations

APA Examples:

The global debt crisis is having a strong impact on women and children in developing nations (Bronstein, 1982, p. 277).

--OR--

Bronstein (1982) contends the global debt crisis is having a strong impact on women and children in developing nations (p. 277).

For electronic sources that have no page number, give the paragraph number, e.g., para 4.